PhD dissertation defense: Spin Squeezing and Closed-Loop Magnetometry with a Collective Atomic Spin
Daniel Hemmer, University of Arizona
Measurements with quantum limited resolution have important applications in metrology and sensing, including atomic clocks, atom interferometry, and magnetometry. We perform a quantum-non-demolition measurement on a collective angular momentum of a million spin-4 Cs atoms with high optical depth in our work. Quantum mechanics limits the measurement's resolution to what is known as the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) when there is no entanglement between the individual atoms. We can generate entanglement between atoms to create spin squeezed states through quantum backaction, improving the measurement sensitivity by 5.5 dB relative to the SQL. We have recently rebuilt the entire experiment inside a state-of-the-art magnetic shield of mu-metal and aluminum. This upgrade has drastically mitigated classical control errors in the spin squeezing experiment. Furthermore, the ensemble's sensitivity to magnetic fields allows us to make precise measurements of the magnetic field environment. Using closed-loop feedback, we use our atomic magnetometer to measure magnetic fields 4.3 dB below the SQL. The shielded environment will allow us to optimize the magnetometer and sets the stage for future experiments to use the closed-loop control to explore more complicated quantum dynamics.
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